Types of Concrete - special Concrete Civil engineering

What are the different types of Concrete used in civil engineering ?


What is concrete?

Concrete is the mixture of cement+sand+aggregate+admixture.

Different types of concrete is given below :

1. Plain or Ordinary Concrete.
2. Lightweight Concrete.
3. High-Density Concrete.
4. Reinforced Concrete.
5. Precast Concrete.
6. Prestressed Concrete.
7. Air Entrained Concrete.
8. Glass Concrete.
9. Rapid Hardening Concrete.
10. Asphalt Concrete.
11. Lime Concrete.
12. Roller Compacted Concrete.
13. Stamped Concrete.
14. Pumped Concrete.
15. Vacuum Concrete.
16. Permeable Concrete.
17. Shotcrete.
18. Ready-mix Concrete.
19. Self-Consolidated Concrete.
20. Fiber Reinforced Concrete.
21. Fly Ash Concrete.
22. High Strength Concrete.
23. Silica Fume Concrete.
24. Polymer Concrete.
25. Ferro Cement Concrete.
26. Pre-packed Concrete.


1. Plain or Ordinary Concrete.


It is one of the most commonly used types of concrete. In this type of concrete, the essential constituents are cement, sand and coarse aggregates designed, and mixed with a specified quantity of water.
The ratio of essential constituents may be varied within wide limits. A very commonly used mix design, commonly known as Nominal Mix Design, is 1:2:4.
Plain concrete is mostly used in the construction of pavements and in buildings, where very high tensile strength is not required. It is also used in the construction of Dams.
Among the most important properties of ordinary concrete, the following may be mentioned.
Density: 2200 – 2500 Kg/meter.cube.
Compressive Strength: 200 – 500 Kg/centimeter.square.
Tensile Strength: 50 – 100 Kg/centimeter.square.
Durability: Very Satisfactory.

2. Lightweight Concrete:


Any types of concrete having a density less than 1920 Kg/m3 is classed as lightweight concrete.
Various types of aggregates that are used in the manufacturing of lightweight concrete include natural materials like pumice and scoria, artificial materials like expanded shales and clays and processed materials like perlite and vermiculite.
The single important property of lightweight concrete is its very low thermal conductivity.

For example: Thermal conductivity – the k value, for plain concrete may be as high as 10-12. But the thermal conductivity of Lightweight concrete is about 0.3.
Lightweight Concretes are used, depending upon their composition, for thermal insulation, for protecting steel structures, they are also used in long span bridge decks, and even as building blocks.
Aerated Concrete is a variety of extremely lightweight concrete ( density 480-800 Kg/m3 ). This is obtained by using cement, sand, and powdered fuel ash as constituent.

3. High-density Concrete:


This type of concrete is also called heavy weight concrete. In this concrete type, the density varies between 3000-4000 Kg/m3.
These types of concrete are prepared by using high density crushed rocks as coarse aggregates. Among such materials, Barytes is the most commonly used material, which has a specific gravity of 4.5.
They are mostly used in atomic power plants and other similar structures because it provides good protection from all type of radiations.


4. Reinforced Concrete:


It is also called RCC (Reinforced Cement Concrete). In this concrete type, steel in various forms is used 
as reinforcement to give very high tensile strength.
In fact, it is because of the combined action of plain concrete (having high compressive strength) and steel (having high tensile strength).
The steel reinforcement is cast in the form of rods, bars, meshes, and all conceivable shapes.
Every care is taken to ensure the maximum bond between the reinforcement and the concrete during the setting and hardening process.
Thus, the resulting material (RCC) is capable of bearing all types of stress in any type of construction. 
RCC is the most important concrete type.

5. Precast Concrete:


This term refers to numerous types of concrete shapes that are cast into molds either in a factory or at the site.
However, they are not used in construction until they completely set and hardened in a controlled condition.
Some of the examples of Precast Concrete are; precast poles, fence posts, concrete lintels, staircase units, concrete blocks, and cast stones, etc.



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